Saturday, June 6, 2020

School Violence in the United States - Free Essay Example

School violence has largely become one of the greatest issues the United States is facing in the 21st century largely due to the underlying issues that are present when violence in schools occurs. When school violence is in the news, oftentimes it is associated with school shootings. There are questions that need to be asked that involve the issues that led to someone committing such violence to hopefully prevent this from happening again, but it seems as if the problem is much bigger than solving what seems to also be a mental health crisis. Bullying or the home environment could be major factors into the reasons why a student wants to commit violent acts towards their classmates or school staff and could be the key in helping to prevent future acts of violence in schools. Acts of bullying or being harassed are nothing new to the 21st century as it has occurred for centuries in various forms, both reported and unreported. With todays technology advances, bullying has become more prevalent and is no longer just confined to school grounds. With the internet and cell phone usage on the rise, bullying takes on new forms. It is no longer contained to face-to-face contact, but also includes cyberbullying with many ways to harm an individual. The most common places where it occurs is through social media, text messaging, instant messaging, and email (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). This type of bullying can be dangerous because online content such as photos, social media posts, or text messages can be shared and often viewed by their peers or even strangers (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). One might assume that since technology has become widely used in the United States, there would be more studies done to analyze cyberbullying behaviors to help staff members in schools or parents and guardians recognize the signs or behaviors of bullying to assist in preventing situations from escalating or to help give those who have been victimized a voice as oftentimes bullying can go unreported. However, according to the Cyberbullying Research Center, there have only been three studies to their knowledge that have examined various factors or behavior of cyberbullying from 2000 to 2017 (Cyberbullying Research Center). This statistic is concerning given that according to DoSomething.org, about 75 percent of students admit they have visited a website bashing another student (DoSomething.org). While cyberbullying is occurring more frequently through recent years, other types of harassment have been prevalent for centuries. Bullying can also fall under harassment, which can be based on race, sex, color, age, disability or religion (National Association of School Nurses, Inc.). Students who are most vulnerable to this type of bullying are those with disabilities, speech impediments, academic difficulties or physical features such as children with glasses or those who are overweight (National Association of School Nurses, Inc.). According to statistics from the Anti-Bullying Institute, one in seven students in the grades K-12 are either a bully or have been a victim of bullying and an estimated 160,000 children in the United States stay home due to the fear of bullying or intimidation from other students(Anti-Bullying Institute). Not only are students subjected to harassment if they are more likely to have a physical or mental disability, but gender, religion, and sexual orientation appear to play an unfortunate role in bullying, as well. According to a statistic from the research, 83 percent of girls and 79 percent of boys report experiencing harassment (Anti-Bullying Institute). Bullying can also result in how a student may feel over someone elses sexual orientation. According to a statistic, nearly nine out of ten LGBTQ youth report being verbally abused because of their sexual orientation (Anti-Bullying Institute). Religion is also another factor into bullying in schools. According to a statistic, 57 percent of boys and 43 percent of girls reported being bullied because of religious or cultural differences. Children who are more apt to bully may also have difficulties in their home environment. Studies show that, Four-year-old children who receive emotional support and cognitive stimulation from their parents are significantly less likely to become bullies in grade school, but the more television four-year-olds watch the more likely they are to bully later (Journal Of The American Medical Association). According to the Journal of the American Medical Association, there are three possible predictors of future bullying behavior (Journal Of The American Medical Association). These predictors are: that parental emotional support helps young children young children develop empathy, self-regulation, and prosocial skills and might be protective; that bullying might arise out of early cognitive deficits that lead to decreased competence with peers; and that television violence may produce aggressive behavior (Journal Of The American Medical Association). These predictors are helpful in discove ring ways to influence the prevention of acts of bullying that may lead to school violence in the home environment, however, there must also be an influence of prevention from schools. Schools are becoming an important part in preventing bullying behavior or school violence. However, according to a statistic, nearly 70% of students think schools respond poorly to bullying (Anti-Bullying Institute). As someone who works in a public elementary school, I have seen evidence of bullying in a school and the response to bullying from the schools perspective. It is highly important to keep your eyes open to witness any behavior that may be suspicious of bullying. According to a statistic on this topic, when bystanders intervene, bullying stops within ten seconds, 57 percent of the time (Anti-Bullying Institute). Bullying occurs because students are often motivated by the power and high feeling they can receive from harassing a classmate or young individuals. Students who pursue bullying may be compensating for what is occurring in their home life or their emotions from school or other factors. Harassment and bullying can also have a long-term effect on students from a physical and mental health perspective, even those who witness another child being bullied (Bullying No Way!). Children that see bullying often feel like that is the normal behavior on how to act towards other students or peers (Bullying No Way!). According to an organization, Bullying No Way!, research shows that bullying has a negative impact on kids self-esteem, academic performance, coping skills and can increase unhappiness and anxiety. That is where the mental illness falls into place (Bullying No Way!). With mental health in question, oftentimes bullying may escalate to worse situations than mental abuse or physical violence. Students may get their hands on various weapons and decide to bring them to school to commit gun violence against students and school staff. According to a statistic on school shootings, 75 percent of shooting incidents at schools have been linked to bullying and harassment (Anti-Bullying Institute). In just the past 2 years, school shootings have become what seems like the new norm, yet have been happening at least since the 1970s. According to a report from researchers of the Department of Education and the Secret Service, they studied 37 incidents of targeted school-based violence between 1974 and 2000 (Winn). The school-based violence was either a current or recent, former student who attacked someone at his or her school with lethal means; and where the student attacker purposefully chose his or her school as the location of the attack (Winn). The report also found a few notable statistics: all of the attacks were committed by males, 98 percent of the attackers experienced or perceived a major loss prior to the attack, most attackers used a gun as their primary weapon, with 61 percent using handguns and 49 percent us ing rifles or shotguns (Winn). These statistics fit possibly the first school shooting for recent generations to remember, which was the Columbine High School shooting. Two male teens joined together to go on a shooting spree that killed 13 people and wounding more than 20 others, before committing suicide on April 20, 1999 (History.com Editors). During that time, Columbine was considered the worst high school shooting in U.S. history (History.com Editors). Since Columbine, countless other school shootings have occurred that have been declared the worst school shooting in U.S. history, that matches many of these statistics, of the description of the type of weapon or individuals who perpetrated the violence. However, there have also been smaller school shooting situations that may not have gotten much media attention. On September 20, 2017, a school shooting attempt occurred at a high school in Mattoon, Illinois near where I work, which is at the elementary school. The gunman was a freshman, who was apparently bullied, and had brought a gun into the cafeteria and fired a shot off which had hit one student before a staff member sprang into action to stop the shooter from injuring or killing others (Vivanco-Prengaman). The student was detained and charged with one count of aggravated battery with a firearm (Vivanco-Prengaman). I remember being outside on the playground supervising the recess at the elementary school when we got the call to immediately get everyone inside. We did, and as students started showing up, the emotions were high and students were scared. It was a very emotional day for me, but more so for the students. Seeing the kids come together, hugging each other making sure there friends and others were safe was a bright spot in the gloomy day. If it wasnt for the brave teacher, more kids would have been injured, if not dead. This a prime example of how many organizations from the federal, state, and local level, as well as schools and those responsible for raising children should work together or strive to prevent such acts of violence. The argument on school shooting prevention could be made solely on gun control due to the weapons typically being used in school shootings, however, it must start at many levels other than a political movement. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention state that research shows prevention for school violence can be made based on the efforts by teachers, administrators, parents, community members, and even students (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there must be strategies based levels of an individual, relationship, community, and societal in order to lower the risk of school violence. On an individual level, a childs experiences, knowledge, and skills can influence their likelihood of becoming involved in violence (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Encouraging a childs abilities to solve problems or difficulties and giving them opportunities to engage in social activities that are positive can reduce their involvement in violence (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). On a relationship level, positive types with peers with good influence, teachers, and families are a critical factor in promoting a childs well-being, which also helps prevent school violence (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). On a community level, the social environment that occurs in schools can greatly influence a childs motivation for violence. This is why it is extremely important for schools to improve not only a plan in case of a school shooting, but to also improve the promotion of learning and support effective classroom management practices, promoting cooperativ e learning techniques, providing educators with training and support to better meet the diverse needs of students, providing opportunities to actively engage families, and creating open communication and decision-making processes (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). On a societal level, conditions and systems must be put in place to assist a certain social and cultural environment that may elevate the likelihood of school violence (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). School violence is simply something that no one can ignore. From a mental health and home environment aspect, it is important to remember that these students who commit such violent acts may be the bullies or may be tired of being bullied, yet may feel that they have no way out other than to turn to violence. It is important for individuals to understand that these children deserve to go to school and feel safe. It is up to the older generation to shape the lives of our children and to put forth efforts that prevent these crimes from happening whether on a political or social level.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

The History Of Uk Cyber Strategy - 1230 Words

2.2 History of UK Cyber Strategy The history of strategy in military has expanded as technology emerges. Before the 18th Century, the concept of warfare, exist over two levels: strategy and tactics, in modern military leadership, the separation of military and political leadership led to two levels of strategy: grand strategy and military strategy. Grand strategy is the government’s strategy. It sets out the government’s policy on war and peace at a national level. Basil Liddell wrote that grand strategy coordinates and directs all the resources of the nation(s) to the attainment of the political objective of war. The British defence doctrine of 2008 published the hierarchy of command establishing four levels of strategy namely; Grand Strategic – Is the National political aim in peace and war for Her Majesty’s government. The Military Strategy – The strategy of the military of Defence stems from their responsibility within the Grand strategy in developing, sustaining and assigning of military forces and assets to support government policy and achieve the goals of the grand strategic. It operates on two levels namely the Operational Strategy which is the Permanent Joint Headquarters (PJHQ) strategy guiding the use of military forces to achieve the objective of the MOD and Tactical which is the field commanders’ directive for Land, Sea and Air in achieving the Operational goals. The grand strategy was renamed the National Strategy but its definition remains ‘Co-OrdinatedShow MoreRelatedDefence Policy And Military Strategy1134 Words   |  5 Pagesstrategies. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Project Management An Project Manager - 3280 Words

IT Task A Interview What are his/her overall responsibilities as an IT Project Manager? The method of the Project Administrator contains a couple of exercises, for instance, (Heldman, 2011): Sorting out and Decoding Opportunity Arranging and Sequencing Activity Asset Planning Making Arrangements Time Calculating Expense Calculating Building up a Price range Documentation Making Charts and Arrangements Risk Research Directing Risks and Problems Watching and Verifying Improvement Bundle Management Fundamental Impacting Business Integrating Working with Providers Adaptability, Interoperability and Flexibility Research Controlling Quality Advantages Realization What day to day tasks does an IT Project Manager carry out? The†¦show more content†¦Milestone is one of the best resources the Project Administrator can use to appear to be sensible of whether he or she is on the screen in light of the project change. The obsolete point proposition ought to be in vicinity records that ought to be changed here and there a week. Gantt diagram uncovers the project plan and reveals the Project Administrator the relationship of every movement. Gantt graphs are all around used for any sort of project from move up to database compromise. If the project has a more unmistakable arranging, first class or high-risk nuance, then the Project Administrator can utilize venture errands. MS Project can be used as a substitute contraption for checking project modify or it can be used for watching got endeavours apportioned in a couple neighbourhood puts and managed by distinctive undertaking administrators. There is couple of other framework programs for project shop paying little mind to MS Project. The prevailing piece of these new changes is online spots for project shop exercises where the project accomplices have admission to wander information and change from one spot. In Project Reviews, the project modify and the sticking to the technique determinations are basically unquestionably caught on. Frequently, wander results are joined with project reviews by a third occasion (inside or outside). The resistance and action things are then seen to do them. Delivery Reviews certify that the supply tried

Positive psych free essay sample

The emerging field of positive psychology has gained a lot of interest in the recent years. Positive psychology has been proven to promote happiness in many individual’s lives as well as reinforce their personal feelings of self-worth. The use of positive psychology can be applied to multiple aspects of an individual’s life, making it a universal approach to happiness and less stress. One major group of individuals that can effectively carry out the use of positive psychology is athletes. Instilling and educating coaches and players about this approach could help players deal with the immense amount of pressure the players go through. Professional athletes obviously take on more pressures than younger players, but the use of positive psychology can help athletes of all ages. Positive psychology is becoming an emerging field of study within psychology with growing interest. Positive psychology is cutting edge to the psychology field because it is the first branch that focuses on the positive assets and values of an individual instead of trying to treat a mental illness. The mission of positive psychology is to develop sound theories of optimal functioning and to find empirically supported ways to improve the lives of ordinary and extraordinary people. To address this, the first author proposed, during his term as President of the American Psychological Association in 1998, that psychology be just as concerned with what is right with people as it is with what is wrong. As a supplement to the vast research on the disorders and their treatment, we suggest that there should be an equally thorough study of strengths and virtues, and that we should work towards developing interventions that can help people become lastingly happier (Parks, Saligman, Steen 2004). Positive psychology is primarily concerned with using the psychological theory, research and intervention techniques to understand the positive, adaptive, creative and emotionally fulfilling aspects of human behavior. Positive psychology is the scientific study of what makes life most worth living. It is a call for psychological science and practice to be as concerned with strength as with weakness; as interested in building the best things in life as in repairing the worst; and as concerned with making the lives of normal people fulfilling as with healing pathology (Peterson 2008). The most important thing in life is happiness and that is what this very approach is promoting. A life with more happiness is a life that many individuals want, but don’t realize how easy it is to acquire it. The increased stress of competitions can cause athletes to react both physically and mentally in a manner that can negatively affect their performance abilities. They may become tense, their heart rates race, they break into a cold sweat, they worry about the outcome of the competition, or they can find it hard to concentrate on the task in hand. This has led coaches to take an increasing interest in the field of sport psychology and in particular in the area of competitive anxiety. That interest has focused on techniques that athletes can use in the competitive situation to maintain control and optimize their performance. Once learned, these techniques allow the athlete to relax and to focus his or her attention in a positive manner on the task of preparing for and participating in competition. Psychology is another weapon in the athletes armory in gaining the winning edge. Many people in today’s society are claiming to be stressed out or in some state of depression. With much of the population stating this, it has become an interest to look into. It is known that it is normal for our overall health to decline as the aging process occurs. However, things like stress and depression can act like a catalyst and speed this process up much faster. This is why positive psychology is so important to our present society. Positive psychology works to decrease or even diminish those feelings of depression, stress, and self-doubt. It is a unique approach that has been proven to promote happiness, positive emotions, and positive feelings. There is much research that suggests that happiness is also a means toward higher levels of overall success. Using positive psychology can promote happiness, which, in return, will lead to more overall success in an individual’s life (Ben-Shahar 2007). By using the positive psychology approach an individual can lower stress while improving personal biological and spiritual health. Another advantage point to positive psychology is that it can be applied to many aspects of an individual’s life. Positive psychology can be applied to education, the workplace, and in relationships (Ben-Shahar 2007). Athletes for example, are a group of individuals who could really benefit from positive psychology. Athletes of all ages and skill type experience some sort of pressure while playing their beloved sport. Younger athletes could feel pressure from coaches, teammates, and even parents. If youre a parent or coach, you probably have an opinion about youth sports. You might think that sports help children develop teamwork skills, self-confidence, resiliency, moral character, and other personal strengths. Or you may see a dark side to youth sports, believing that young athletes develop aggressive traits like bullying and the need to dominate their opponents on and off the field. The proponents of youth sports often make blanket statements about the benefits of sports, leading parents to believe that if the young athlete doesnt make the team, they may not achieve happiness or develop positive strengths needed to succeed in life. Some believe the positive hype around youth sports is spread by adults who either blindly accept the notion that sports are good for all kids or who are in the business of developing high-performing athletes (Price-Mitchell 2012). Youth sports can be one of the greatest character builders of any young individual. For young athletes, like the one mentioned above who did not make the team, positive psychology is huge. The young athlete is naturally going to have some negative feelings, but needs to be picked up by parents or a coach. You don’t have to be a professional athlete or an Olympic champion to be a successful athlete. Nor do you have to have a room full of trophies, win a state championship, or make the front page of the sports section. Successful athletes also include an eleven year-old figure skater who has not yet won a competition, a high school golfer with a zero handicap, a middle-aged runner whose goal is to complete her first marathon, a weight lifter who holds several world records, and an Olympic medalist (Lesyk 1998). Professional athletes on the other hand, have much more stress to deal with. Professional athletes have to deal with the pressure of being trading, competitive salaries, and things of this nature. Exercising positive psychology would be a great way to reduce their stress and elevate their health. With the absence of stress athletes can then focus on their game and perform at peak levels. Positive psychological interventions can be implemented in many ways in the sporting environment. For instance, research on self talk has shown that positive self talk aids performance. Self talk can be linked closely to a pessimistic explanatory style (Morris 2013). Positive psychology promotes areas such as optimism, stress management, resilience and coping abilities. All of these aspects are important for athletes as they are key traits needed for sporting performance. Many studies like the one mentioned above have looked into the role of optimism and attribution style in sports. This shows that optimists try harder and perform better under pressure. The athletes are not the only ones that should be responsible for carrying out positive psychology; this is where the coaches come into play. Athletes spend the majority of their time with coaches, trainers, and teachers trying to improve their game. It is extremely important for these coaches and teachers to be educated in positive psychology. If the teachers and coaches as well as the athletes are educated about positive psychology, then the relationship and the experience will be healthy. Old school methodology, and hard-nosed tough guy approaches in coaching are not only antiquated but they are ineffective, inefficient, and miss huge opportunities to allow the athlete to train him or herself mentally (Walker 2012). If you’re a sports fan of any type, you have heard about athletes leaving teams or being traded because the athlete and coach could not see eye to eye. These are prime examples why the use of positive psychology is so vital. What is even more appalling is when youth athletes quit for this reason. Young athletes are simply playing the sport because of the positive emotions and feelings they get while playing it. It is terrible when you hear about a promising young athlete who quit because of complications with the coach or feelings of self-doubt. Self-doubt can be very hard for a young player to overcome. Mental toughness in youth sports is imperative. Being mentally weak can bring a stop to any athlete’s career, but if they exercise positive psychology, their mental toughness could soar. The number one mental weakness for athletes is called pressing. Pressing is when an athlete thinks he or she has control over something they do not. Athletes think this because they have been told numerous times by coaches, trainers, and teachers to be positive. Young athletes think that by being positive they can control uncontrollable aspects of the game. An example of pressing would be when a hockey player says he can place his shot anywhere he wants it. He thinks he can do this because he has been told to stay positive. In his mind being positive is controlling his shot. However, to a certain extent the shot cannot be controlled, and if it could be controlled there would never be any mistakes. When athletes start thinking they can control things, they also start pressing. Pressing is basically the opposite of believing and trusting in yourself. When athletes start pressing they sacrifice their quality of play by robbing their self of their innate ability to relax, trust their body, and bring out your best (Brown 2010). Pressing is a major problem for youth athletes that could be solved by positive psychology. A coach could practice positive psychology on a player with these problems to bring them out of their â€Å"slump† and begin their â€Å"hike† back to a high quality of play. By being taught how to escape the pressure of pressing oneself, the athlete can then perform better and enjoy the experience much more easily. There is no question that success in sports is a result of hard-work and good genes but finding the motivation to persevere, especially during tough times, is not that easy. It is important for young athletes to have a positive relationship with their coaches and teachers. The relationship between young athletes and coaches should build trust and should be athlete oriented. It is important that young athletes and coaches talk about goals and revealing strengths. The main difference that youth coaches should focus on is the athlete’s thought process, emotions and values, rather than on how technique, tactics and physical conditioning relate to a player’s performance. Creating a balance in an athlete’s life is an important component of being happier and resilient for both players and their families. If more coaches were educated in positive psychology, they could instill these approaches on young players. This could ultimately lead to a young athlete meeting his or her life goal. The coach can also gain a sense of accomplishment by knowing that they played an important role in that athlete’s career. As you have read, positive psychology has numerous advantages when applied to the many aspects of an individual’s life. The simple positive psychology approach can eliminate many burdens an individual has during his day-to-day life. It has proven over and over again to eliminate self doubt and stress, and since the majority of our population is reporting to have some kind of stress and or depression, positive psychology is more important now than ever. Like stated above, athletes of all ages can benefit from positive psychology. If coaches and players alike can become educated about positive psychology, the sports we love can once again become a fulfilling activity instead of a business, like it has become. During this process of applying positive psychology individuals can then feel the negative weight that has been lifted from their bodies, while their individual health increases. Positive psychology is a great way to promote happiness, increase self worth, and self well being.

Sunday, April 19, 2020

Women In Mens Sports Essays (549 words) - Gender Studies

Women In Men's Sports Topic: Should women be allowed to play on male sports teams? Method of Development: What physical and mental differences do males and females have which might affect the game or moral? Tentative Thesis: As far as mental and physical attributes are concerned, men and women are not created equally. Neither is superior, however, the differences between a man and a woman could affect how they participate in competitive sports. I. Introductory Paragraph: Use examples of differences/stereotypes. Women's soccer taking off shirt after winning game/ vs. men's game. Women want to compete w/men to earn more respect and to be treated equally. Insert thesis. Finish with a few points of support from below for transition. II. Support Paragraphs: Mental and Physical differences A. Men have more endurance. 1. It is scientifically proven that women often tire before men in aerobic exercise. 2. So are the lengths of the quarters, periods, matches etc. shortened to women's games? B. Men are stronger and faster 1. Teams would be competitively uneven when Men outnumber women. 2. Women might complain of discrimination when chosen for the lesser positions. C. What will be done to avoid injury to women's chests? 1. List sports where special care will have to be taken if women join in. 2. Fouls to women's chests can be considered sexual harassment. 3. Men will have to avoid women or relearn the sport they have come to know. Transition Paragraph D. Men are taught to hit hard and break down the offense. 1. Women are taught to be nice and polite. 2. Men have years of experience over women in the hit em' till they fall department. 3. Transition sentence re: physical- mental aspects. E. Years of good manners have taught men that ladies are first and to never harm a lady. 1. All of the time spent teaching boys to be nice and respectful of girls is out the window. 2. Most men will just back off rather than get competitively physical with a woman. 3. If a new generation of boys grow up knocking down girls in pee-wee football will the violence end on the field? F. Sexual Tension will affect the game and the team. 1. Getting a co-ed bunch of great athletes together in a competitive situation is a prime place for sexual tension to fester. 2. There will be love triangles and flings that will affect the game. 3. Men will tend to act macho and show off more for females even when not in best interest of the team. G. Sexual harassment will be a major issue that will not allow boys to be boys. 1. What is to be done about the locker room(s)? 2. Coaches will have to completely change their language and attitudes to avoid accusations. 3. In physical sports there is often touching/hitting that would be considered sexual harassment when occurring male vs. female. 4. Boys can't be boys in the one last place they have always been able to act like themselves. III. Concluding Paragraph: Start with the fall of the man (sarcasm) as he looses his locker room spirit. Use some shock headlines of future sports with mixed gender teams. Conclude with serious points mentioned above about why it just won't work. Bibliography None - opinion paper Sports and Games

Sunday, March 15, 2020

The Quest for the Source of the Nile

The Quest for the Source of the Nile In the mid-nineteenth century, European explorers and geographers were obsessed with the question: where does the Nile River begin? Many considered it to be the greatest geographic mystery of their day, and those who sought it became household names. Their actions and the debates that surrounded them intensified public interest in Africa and contributed to the colonization of the continent. The Nile River The Nile River itself is easy to trace. It runs northward from the city of Khartoum in Sudan through Egypt and drains into the Mediterranean. It is created, though, from the confluence of two other rivers, The White Nile and the Blue Nile. By the early nineteenth century, European explorers had shown that the Blue Nile, which supplies much of the water for the Nile, was a shorter river, arising only in neighboring Ethiopia. From then forward, they fixed their attention on the mysterious White Nile, which arose much further south on the Continent. A Nineteenth-Century Obsession By the mid-nineteenth century, Europeans had become obsessed with finding the source of the Nile. In 1857, Richard Burton and John Hannington Speke, who already disliked each other, set out from the east coast to find the much-rumored source of the White Nile. After several months of acrimonious travel, they discovered Lake Tanganyika, though reportedly it was their headman, a former slave known as Sidi Mubarak Bombay, who first spotted the lake (Bombay was essential to the success of the trip in many ways and went on to manage several European expeditions, becoming one of the many career headmen on whom explorers heavily relied.) As Burton was ill, and the two explorers were constantly locking horns, Speke proceeded north on his own, and there found Lake Victoria. Speke returned triumphantly, convinced he had found the source of the Nile, but Burton dismissed his claims, beginning one of the most divisive and public disputes of the age. The public at first strongly favored Speke, and he was sent on a second expedition, with another explorer, James Grant, and nearly 200 African porters, guards, and headmen. They found the White Nile but were unable to follow it up to Khartoum. In fact, it was not until 2004 that a team finally managed to follow the river from Uganda all the way to the Mediterranean. So, once again Speke returned unable to offer conclusive proof. A public debate was arranged between him and Burton, but when he shot and killed himself on the day of the debate, in what many believed was an act of suicide rather than the shooting accident it was officially proclaimed to be, support swung full circle to Burton and his theories.   The quest for conclusive proof continued for the next 13 years. Dr. David Livingstone and Henry Morton Stanley searched Lake Tanganyika together, disproving Burton’s theory, but it was not until the mid-1870s that Stanly finally circumnavigated Lake Victoria and explored the surrounding lakes, confirming Speke’s theory and solving the mystery, for a few generations at least. The Continuing Mystery As Stanley showed, the White Nile flows out of Lake Victoria, but the lake itself has several feeder rivers, and present-day geographers and amateur explorers still debate which of these is the true source of the Nile. In 2013, the question came to the fore again when the popular BBC car show, Top Gear, filmed an episode featuring the three presenters trying to find the source of the Nile while driving inexpensive station wagons, known in Britain as estate cars. Currently, most people agree the source is one of two small rivers, one of which arises in Rwanda, the other in neighboring Burundi, but it is a mystery that continues.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

ARD Green roof Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

ARD Green roof - Essay Example esign allows a greater insulation from the other two designs, meaning it could provide a greater amount of energy on its own, and therefore, fulfilling the stand alone requirement. The water retention and filter drainage layers both would aid in preventing irrigation and store water if there ever was a drought. In essence, there are variant considerations that one must make before concluding or choosing the best type of roofing especially when there are specific demands based on energy conservation. Perhaps the best guide in analyzing whether a building, or a roof in this matter, is in line with the green building milestones is by checking the roofs properties against the guidelines advanced by LEED (Yudelson, 2008). The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating systems provide a guide that can be utilized in determining a green building (Vassigh, Özer & Spiegelhalter, 2013). Besides the goal to meet the system’s rating it is also important to look at the unique factors around the building. These include, a hot and dry weather, which characterizes the region, Flagstaff. In this regard, the idea is to have a roof that allows for high-efficiency ventilation, one that makes use of rapidly renewable materials, and finally on that only utilizes certified wood produc ts. Notably, the roofing system should preferably allow for solar photovoltaic systems (Vassigh, Özer & Spiegelhalter, 2013). Based on these analysis points it then becomes critical to weigh the roof’s properties against the identified interest areas. Where else the other roof designs present a commendable effort it is easy to pick on Design #2 as this is modeled in a way that makes it possible to meet the desired Green goals as established under the LEED rating system (Edwards, 2003). Besides, the design provides the best way to counter and at the same time maximally utilize the photo energy that represents the region. In totality, the design provides a friendly, green and